Latest posts by Michael Pietroforte (see all)
- Results of the 4sysops member and author competition in 2018 - Tue, Jan 8 2019
- Why Microsoft is using Windows customers as guinea pigs - Reply to Tim Warner - Tue, Dec 18 2018
- PowerShell remoting with SSH public key authentication - Thu, May 3 2018
Download with SMB ^
If you are working in a hybrid IT environment, you often need to download or upload files from or to the cloud in your PowerShell scripts. If you only use Windows servers that communicate through the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol, you can simply use the Copy-Item cmdlet to copy the file from a network share:
Copy-Item -Source \\server\share\file -Destination C:\path\
This assumes that you have a VPN solution in place so that your cloud network virtually belongs to your intranet. Things get a bit more complicated if we are leaving the intranet and have to download from an extranet or the Internet.
Download in PowerShell 2 ^
The next simple case is where you have to download a file from the web or from an FTP server. In PowerShell 2, you had to use the New-Object cmdlet for this purpose:
$WebClient = New-Object System.Net.WebClient
As of PowerShell 3, we have the Invoke-WebRequest cmdlet, which is more convenient to work with. It is PowerShell’s counterpart to GNU wget, a popular tool in the Linux world, which is probably the reason Microsoft decided to use its name as an alias for Invoke-WebRequest. This is perhaps an understatement; Invoke-WebRequest is more powerful than wget because it allows you to not only download files but also parse them. But this is a topic for another post.
Download with Invoke-WebRequest ^
To simply download a file through HTTP, you can use this command:
Invoke-WebRequest -Uri "http://www.contoso.com" -OutFile "C:\path\file"
In the example, we just download the HTML page that the web server at www.contoso.com generates. Note that, if you only specify the folder without the file name, as you can do with Copy-Item, PowerShell will error:
Invoke-WebRequest : Could not find a part of the path
The shorter version for the command line is:
wget "http://www.contoso.com" -outfile "file"
If you omit the local path to the folder, Invoke-WebRequest will just use your current folder. The -Outfile parameter is always required if you want to save the file. The reason is that, by default, Invoke-WebRequest sends the downloaded file to the pipeline.
However, the pipeline will then not just contain the contents of the file. Instead, you will find an object with a variety of properties and methods that allow you to analyze text files. If you send a binary file through the pipeline, PowerShell will treat it as a text file and you won’t be able to use the data in the file.
To only read the contents of the text file, we need to read the Content property of the object in the pipeline:
Invoke-WebRequest "http://www.contoso.com" | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Content | Out-File "file"
This command does the same thing as the previous one. The -ExpandProperty parameter ensures that the header (in this case, “Content”) won’t be stored in the file.
If you want to have the file in the pipeline and store it locally, you have to use -PassThru parameter:
Invoke-WebRequest "http://www.contoso.com" -OutFile "file" -PassThru | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Content
This command stores the web page in a file and displays the HTML code.
Download and display file
Authenticating at a web server ^
If the web server requires authentication, you have to use the -Credential parameter:
Invoke-WebRequest -Uri https://www.contoso.com/ -OutFile C:"\path\file" -Credential "yourUserName"
Note that, if you omit the -Credential parameter, PowerShell will not prompt you for a user name and password and will throw this error:
Invoke-WebRequest : Authorization Required
You have to at least pass the user name with the -Credential parameter. PowerShell will then ask for the password. If you want to avoid a dialog window in your script, you can store the credentials in a PSCredential object:
$Credentials = Get-Credential
Invoke-WebRequest -Uri "https://www.contoso.com" -OutFile "C:\path\file" -Credential $Credentials
You can use the -UseDefaultCredentials parameter instead of the -Credential parameter if you want to use the credentials of the current user. To add a little extra security, you might want to encrypt the password. Make sure to always use HTTPS instead of HTTP if you have to authenticate on a remote server. If the web server uses basic authentication, your password will be transmitted in clear text if you download via HTTP.
Note that this method only works if the web server manages authentication. Nowadays, most websites use the features of a content management system (CMS) to authenticate users. Usually, you then have to fill out an HTML form. I will explain in one of my next posts how you can do this with Invoke-WebRequest.
Downloading files through FTP works analogous to HTTP. You also shouldn’t use this protocol if security matters. To download multiple files securely, you had better work with SFTP or SCP. Invoke-WebRequest doesn’t support these protocols. However, third-party PowerShell modules exist that step into the breach.
In my next post I will show you can use Invoke-WebRequest to parse HTML pages and scrape content from websites.